This volume comprises two parts. Part one is the pandect which systematically introduces the basic problems extant in research on the history of Chinese mathematics, including its research object, methods, significance, staging, history, current situation and features. This part is the general and guiding principle of the book as a whole. Part two elaborates the emergence of mathematics in China and the accumulation of mathematical knowledge. This spans the Upper Paleolithic period to the end of the Western Han dynasty, covering a time period of almost 20,000 years. The book is listed as the “eighth five-year plan of national important books”.