This research on China’s rural old-age security system is a project of Liaoning province. It analyzes the security system for old people in rural China from the perspective of the security system framework and the development of a system for old-age security benefits. On the basis of the conclusions of previous pieces of research, it examines the reality of the security system in rural China and gives a general picture of the basic current living conditions of old people in rural areas. Through detailed analysis it proposes several different types of endowment resources in rural China: the natural development model, the endowment resources model promoted by the government, and the industrialized endowment resources model. These three models have their own respective limitations and mutual contradictions.